Sadism

‘Sadism’ is a shadowy, glamor filled word in linguafranca.  The word cannot escape engagement because it stands unavoidable where a peculiar behaviour attitude of human beings is involved.

Sadism refers to a tendency to derive pleasure, including sexual gratification, by inflicting pain, suffering, or humiliation to others or on the self.  ‘Masochism’ is another word that means inflicting pain on self and then the self enjoying pleasure out of inflicting the pain on the self. Sadism or masochism, it is deliberate action meant for inflicting pain and then for deriving pleasure out of the cruelty. Sadism is a common phenomenon which is observable in interferences and interactions of some persons among the society.

Indo-Pakistan enmity is a persistent, unresolved issue ever since the sub-continent was divided and the State of Pakistan was created. Some time back, two Indian army men were captured by Pakistan army and beheaded them. Then the mutilated bodies without their heads were handed over to the Indian army.  The event was celebrated by the Pak army while for the people of India and especially for the Indian army it was one of the saddest events which inflicted pain to the conscience of the Nation as a whole. Inflict pain and derive pleasure out of the cruelty is the worst form of enmity!

Willful act aimed at deriving pleasure by causing pain to others is an ingrained human trait. Take the case of festivals: Among all advanced human societies, festivals are a source of pleasure. Festivals in some way or the other also include cruel acts of inflicting pain and distress to others whether humans or animals. For example, sacrifice of animals still continues to be a part of celebrations of temple festivals of some religious communities in India. There is therefore nothing unethical to conclude that even in festivals element of sadism is common. Similar is the case of individuals who enjoy pleasure seeing their opponents being humiliated or beaten up by rivals.

Journalistic sadism is another matter of interest in the context: Journalism has a wider spectrum of joy for some section of the readers. Journalists who are specialists in the profession, process events with distorted reflection of facts in a way meant to cause pain to some section of readers for the sake of entertainment for others.

Fundamental principle of democracy is to elect a political party with majority to rule the State.  Political parties with different views and ideologies contest the elections. During the course of electioneering, for defeating their rivals, the contestants turn to painful tantrums to defeat the opponents and to capture the seat. When elected, the trouble makers rejoice the win with pleasure while the defeated undergo pains of disappointment. Does not the scenario present the gloom of sadism!

The well known Swiss psychologist C G Jung (1875-1961) once said that sadism is a symptom of ill health. “The healthy man does not torture others; generally it is the tortured that turn into torturers.” Jung’s statement tallies with the latest findings that sadism is a symptom of ill-health; sadism is a neurological disorder. Sadism continues to be part and parcel of human nature with varying intensities.

Inflicting pain to the partner or to the self during sex-act and thereby to enjoy pleasure in the process is another dark shade of Sadism. The sadistic behaviour is not confined to men alone, but there are women sadists as well. Not only are those, according to some studies, there are animals like gorillas and monkeys which behave like sadists. Although sex-sadism is prevalent in every part of the world, there are no available statistical data to pinpoint the exact number of sadists across the globe and the share of the countries which contribute to the global figure. The reason for the state of affairs is the reluctance on the part of sadists and their victims to report the cases for fear of shame and consequential punishment for the offenses that they commit.

Sadism was recognized as psychiatric disorder by medical profession, long ago. According to psychiatry, sadism is a personality disorder: Biological and environal factors mainly contribute to the disorder. Genetic factors do not play any role in sadistic behaviour.  There is a general perception that sadistic personality disorder is more among males as compared to females. Such a perception is basically wrong because female sadists seldom dare to reveal their act.

It is observed that sadism, the sexual or the other, has family based tracts even though it does not confirm hereditary traits: People afflicted by the disorder are often found to have relatives with psychopathic problems.

Major contributing factor for sadism and or masochism is unfavorable experiences during childhood and early period of sexual development. The disorder develops through the process of conditioning by the influence of situations that exist within the reach of sensory experiences of individuals during the period of childhood and sexual development stages.

Sadistic behaviour may be separated into two categories. One of the types represents intentional, calculated nefarious actions aimed at torturing the victim. The motivation for this type of sadism might be aim for extracting what the individual sadist wants to extract from the victim: The intention behind the action may be for dowry in marriages, money and wealth and escapism from wedlock for married couples. The second category is of genuine postulations where psychosomatic reasons are involved:

There are individuals whose central nervous system might be incapacitated to respond to internal and or external stimulations coming from various environs for what is meant for ethical behaviour. In the ensuing confusion, the individual concerned becomes irrational: She or he then becomes the beholder of sadism and sadistic behaviour.

The first category belonging to imitation sadism can be brought back to normalcy with proper treatment at the hands of law enforcement agencies and the police. The second category needs consistent medical and psychiatric treatments to retract the inflicted one to normal behaviour path. Implicit or explicit, imbibed or inbuilt, sadism remains one among several other behaviour disorders designed to desiccate humanity.

Mind, – That’s Not outside the Body

Dictionary portrays that “mind” is a  ‘psychic’ experience or a sort of ‘spiritual’ being. During the prehistoric era when human thoughts started penetrating the unknown territories, ancient philosophers explained mind as an entity which belonged to the spirit world. That might be the locale from where dictionary borrowed the stated concept that mind is  ‘psychic experience’ of humans.

The philosophy that prevailed in India during the period before CE 1500 when the invasive Aryans arrived, explained mind as consciousness generated by human brain. That is exactly what modern science says. However, with the arrival of the Aryans, all the materialistic thoughts that existed in ancient Bharat were replaced by a philosophy based on subjectivism. Concept of human mind was no exception. Their explanation was that mind belonged to the spirit world which exists outside the human body; mind enters body from the spirit world through an unknown and invisible thread that can be experienced only by the enlightened spiritualists; mind traverses with unimaginable velocity; enlightened spiritual gurus can communicate with anybody and everybody through the medium of mind irrespective of distance and locations.

There thus came the concept of mind as being an entity immersed in the spirit world; there thus came the concept of mind getting connected with the human body.

It took hundreds of years since the birth and growth of the imaginations began before the concept of materialistic ideas attracted the thinkers. In that context, the name of Anaxagoras who was alive around BC 500, needs a reference: According to Anaxagoras the cosmos is made of divisible matter and every bit of the matter can become anything but no part of matter can become ‘mind’ because mind is soul which is separate from matter. It confirms that even Anaxagoras’ ideas were born out of imaginations.

The mind connection with spirit world continued almost up to AC 17th Century till Rene’ Descartes propounded the Cartesian theory of Dualism to resolve mind-body problem.

Descartes proposed a host of theories. One of his theories was that there exists a distinction between the realms of mind and matter. Another proposal was that universe contains a single stuff.  Mind and matter are both the aspects of that single stuff.

Almost all the theories about mind are, in some way or the other, related to an invisible spirit that exists outside human body. Though some of the theories conceived the idea to connect mind to matter, the penultimate conclusion could not escape the mind-relation with soul and spirit.

Science does not have space to accommodate any spirit world; mind does not exist in a non-existent spirit world to enter the human body. The phenomenon of Mind is a part of human physic and therefore mind need not require to be connected to human body.

Mind is not a separate entity; separate from the physical body which is material. What is referred to as mind belongs to the physic. The sum total of different reactions of the physic, – reactions to stimuli emanating from both the internal and the external environs, is called ‘Mind’.  In terms of science, the concept of mind as an entity of the spirit world getting connected with physical body is deceptive. The human body consists of body cells and nerve cells. Both the body cells and nerve cells form part of the body.

Feelings and emotions are felt as a result of excitation of the nerve cells. Excitation takes place when stimuli from the environs react with the nerve cells. The stimuli from environs reach central nervous system through various nerve connections in the sensory centers that represent vision, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. These sensory nerve centers are there in the body at the time of birth. The mental activity that enables cardiac pulsations, blood circulation, breathing and ingestion are ingrained in the nervous system at the time of birth and are made possible through permanent nerve connections controlled by unconditioned reflex actions. The mental activity governed by unconditioned reflex action just keeps the organism to meet bare subsistence needs of the body. These bare needs are supplemented by countless nerve connections which are formed after the organism is born. Such after-born nerve connections are activated and controlled by conditioned reflex actions. Human mind represents the combination of both the unconditioned and conditioned reflex actions that take place in the central nervous system.

Organism survives in the environment; the organism grows and fulfills its biological calls through nervous actions which are guided, controlled and executed by unconditioned and conditioned reflex actions. These then are supported and supplemented by inherent biochemical formulations of congenital origin. The entire process taken together is what constitutes ‘Mind’. The concept that mind exists in the spirit world and that the mind gets connected with the human body because of soul that sustains life, is misconceived belief.

Human Types – The Physiological Factors

All humans are not of the same calibre, emotionally, intellectually and creatively. Some write poetry, novels and prose; some make inventions and some do hard labor. While on the other side, some live life simply to live life and some live life in dull-murk inertia.

Brain, the nervous system, enables all mental and physical activities of humans as well as animals and other living organisms. The brain activities are executed by the process of excitation and inhibition of the sensory centres in the central nervous system. Excitation and inhibition are guided by reflexes. Reflexes are the established contact links of nerve to nerve communication. The nerve to nerve communication of reflexes is necessary for arousal of sensory experiences in consequence of interaction of stimuli emanating from various environs.

Environs go on changing constantly: Sometimes it is normal and at other times it fluctuates with higher and or lower intensities. In order to keep balance with the fluctuating influence of the environs brain as a whole especially the nerve cells in the sensory areas of the cortex have to bear the burden of the changes to keep equilibrium of its reactions. But the physical structure of every human being is not equally fit enough to keep the equilibrium. While a section of the people keep their behaviour balanced some others appear weak, some provocative, some imaginative, some sleepish and dreamy. It all depends upon each individual’s neuro-physical structure alongside with congenital factors. As a result, behaviour and temperaments of humans vary from person to person.

During the pre-scientific era of the yore, philosophers made umpteen attempts to classify the types of people on the basis of their temperament. They presumed that humans belong to different types depending upon their temperaments and general behaviour.

The Greek Physician-Philosopher Hippocrates, who belonged to the era four hundred years before Jesus Christ was born, was successful in identifying four basic types of humans depending upon their behaviour and temperaments.  According to the theory of Hippocrates, humans can be classified as Choleric Type, Phlegmatic Type, Sanguine Type and Melancholic Type.

Choleric type of person is quick, active and practical. These persons are strong-willed, self-sufficient and independent. They have vivid opinions and they make easy decisions for themselves and for others.

Phlegmatic type is generally of well-balanced temperaments:  They are calm, cool, slow and easy going. They do not get excited; they are happy and pleasant; they hardly interfere in the affairs of others. They are consistent; they are a combination of multitudes of abilities.

Sanguine is that type of a person who is always warm, buoyant and lively. Sanguine is receptive; Sanguine recognizes the feelings of others. Feelings rather than thoughts predominate the decision making power of the Sanguine type.

Melancholy is considered as dark temperament:  By nature melancholic type of people are introverts. They live under the cloud of different moods; moods make them ecstatic too.

Hippocrates’s reason for differentiating individual humans was based on a misconceived idea that liquids of different nature flood the human body and depending upon the nature of the liquid humans fall under different types. The liquid theory behind human type was discarded as being baseless and unworthy. However, the discarded theory was re-examined by the great physiologist, Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, to confirm whether there was neurological substance in the subjective theory propounded by Hippocrates.  Pavlov’s investigations brought to light many hitherto unknown truths about human type.

Excitation and inhibition are basic nerve actions that take place in brain.  Strength, mobility and balance of these basic nerve processes vary from person to person depending upon the nature of nerve cells.  Pavlov proved that excitation process has dominance over inhibition process in the nerve cells of Choleric type of people. People with predominance of inhibition over excitation, are Phlegmatic.  Sanguine are those with balanced excitation and inhibition. Melancholic are the type where both the nerve processes of excitation and inhibition are weak and feeble.

Pavlov’s investigations did not stop at identifying the nerve processes behind the Types: He went ahead further revealing the peculiarities of the types:  He distinguished three Strong Types and one Weak Type with reference to nervous action.  Pavlov characterized them as (1) Strong type with predominance of excitation under the Choleric type, (2) Strong type with predominance of inhibition under Phlegmatic type, (3) Strong type with balanced processes of excitation and inhibition under Sanguine type  and (4) Weak type with weak processes of both excitation and inhibition under Melancholic type.

Ivan Pavlov’s investigations also revealed certain links that exist between the communication system of humans and the types. The communication system of humans comprises First Signal System of signs and symbols and the Second Signal System of words. Pavlov found that Artistic Type of people have predominance of First Signal System as compared to the Second Signal System. Intellectual Type is the one endowed with predominance of Second Signal System as against the First Signal System.  There is also an Intermediate Type with both First and Second signal systems balanced. People of artistic type perceive reality vividly, imaginatively. They feel confident in their surroundings. People of intellectual type are not inclined to ratiocination and doubt and they always turn indecisive in their day to day life.

Poetry, novels, short stories, philosophical doctrines are the creations of humans. Inventions for existence and inventions for destruction are the creations of humans. Society, social order, rules, regulations, customs, beliefs, dogmas, politics and governance are the creations of humans. Skill and ability of creations are bestowed on the humans according to their Type. Success or failure, whatever it be, all depends upon the Type. Type, yes type that is what decides humans among humans.

Cognitive Disorders – Illusions, Hallucinations, Delusions

Human mind is storehouse of complexity. The complexity surpasses all other living organisms mainly because of the two-fold communication skills of First Signal System and Second Signal System both of which are communication facilities of human brain. Let us have a look at it:

Sensory centres in the human brain interact with stimuli emanating from the environs with the aid of sense organs. Cognitive ability of the brain is the direct result of the interaction. There are situations where cognition gets refracted and disorderly due to malfunctioning or improper functioning of the sensory centres.

Brain activity that reflects the objective reality of the outside world begins with Sensations. Brain does not react directly with the outside objects but it acts through receptors called sense organs. Sensation is the primary mental activity and it is the initial stage of cognitive process. The process of reflection of objective reality does not stop at the initial stage. A person gets not only the individual qualities of an object as cognition but the object itself as a whole. The process of mental activity by or through which the entire phenomena is reflected, involving unity and judgment, not only individual properties but the object in its entirety is known as Perception.

What everything one sees, hears or feels is reflected through Perception.  The cognitive ability up to the level of perception is common to animals and humans but the cognitive capability of humans is at a higher level due to the complexity of brain development. The distinction is attributable to Conception. Conception belongs to Second Signal System that is the means of communication through words. It is specifically separate from the First Signal System of means of communication through Signs and Symbols. The transformation of cognitive capability of the brain through sensations and perceptions supplemented by Conception pass through Evaluation and Judgment to become memory. Memory is human ability to retain traces of past perceptions and sensations and to reproduce them as concepts. This is where the cognitive activities of central nervous system of humans sustain its generality for normal existence. However there arise situations which affect cognitive functions and end up in deflected experiences for the individuals. Such deflections generate experiences which are outside generality. What is commonly known as Illusions, Hallucinations and Delusions belongs to the deflected experiences.

Illusion is a distorted or a false perception of an existing thing or matter in the environs. The experience of illusion is deceptive but it need not necessarily be serious derangement of the mind. For example, in hot summer season, highway vehicle drivers see a mirage which is an illusion but not a serious one.  Persons who are in affective state of sensory function due to extreme beliefs, fear and anxiety become victims of deranged consciousness.  They experience very deep visual, auditory,  olfactory or other illusions which are serious in nature.  Take the case of mental patients: Cracks on walls, shadows on ceilings, wandering clouds in far away skies may appear to them as monsters, characters in mythology or denizens of heaven. Their experiences are illusions that belong to the serious category. Illusions occur to healthy individuals as well as mentally retarded persons when their cerebral hemispheres and its working are obliterated or reduced due to partial inactivity or inhibition of the sensory centres in their cortex.

Hallucination is an imaginary perception: Complete absence of objects of perception is its peculiarity. The false perception appears as real to the perceiver with external projection.  The perception occupies the same position in space as real objects do and it becomes so apparent to the perceiver that the authenticity of what is perceived is never doubted by the perceiver.

Hallucinations take place as a result of disorder or derangement of mind. The disorder or the derangement can be either of elementary nature or it can be complex with high intensity.

Elementary hallucination is less serious compared to complex ones. Seeing sparks of light and hearing cracking sounds in the absence of real object of vision or any source of the sound can be cited as examples for elementary hallucination. These experiences take place even while the perceiver is in total wakeful state with normal sensibility. On the other side, complex hallucinations are serious in intensity and nature:  Most hallucinations belong to auditory, visual, olfactory and gustatory sensory centres. A serious mental patient may hear voices that command him to do something or not to do something. The command could be that the patient shall kill himself or he shall go out and preach the gospel of god. In other situations, the patient would be seeing landscapes, angels roaming the heavens, god appearing before him to bless, demons chasing to devour him; all according to deep rooted beliefs.

Delusions are false opinions and beliefs which do not correspond with the true position of things and matters in the environs. They have morbid basis and are distorted and perverted reflection of objective reality.  Delusions and hallucinations are not of the same stature.

Hallucinations are experiences while delusions are false opinions got deep rooted in the memory. Delusions do not correspond with reality. They are always at variance with reality and are not subject to criticism and correction. Delusion is a symptom of serious mental derangement.  It is difficult for the sufferers to free themselves out of the influence of delusions.

Illusions and Hallucinations take place when the cerebral cortex is in the transitory state of hypnotic phase. Delusions too belong to this transitory state but the bases of its arousal being strong conditioned nerve connections, the intensity of delusions remain unalterable.

It is necessary in this context to have a general understanding of natural sleep and hypnosis which is induced by idealistic practices.

While awake, the sensory centres in the cerebral hemispheres interact with stimuli from the environs and consequently the nerve cells lose energy due to the process of excitation. Then the cells pass on to restful, inactive state of inhibition. Such inhibitory state of the cells is what is commonly known as natural sleep. The very basis for the reach of the restful, inactive state of inhibition is continuous excitation.

Except for the natural environs, humans have created several other environs by way of beliefs, faiths, rituals, pursuits, societal norms, codes of conduct, behaviour, concepts of rights and wrongs, authority and abeyance and so many other conditions. The man made environs too lead to cerebral inhibition due to excitation provided by the artificial environs. The persons, who are extreme adherents to the man made environs, pass through the artificial inhibition akin to hypnosis in their cerebral hemispheres. They are the ones who become prey to the abnormal cognitive experiences. The partial sleep of hypnosis during its paradoxical phase brings in experiences of illusions and hallucinations. Delusions of patients suffering from serious mental disorders arise either in paradoxical hypnotic phase or in transition of paradoxical and ultra paradoxical hypnotic phases separately or intermittently.

Human mind is complex: The complexity has no idealistic basis. Mind is materialistic and it is the product of brain activity. Brain activity manifests desires and striving to make changes by way of acts and deeds. The manifestations are known as Volitional processes involving active attention.  Volitional processes are facilitated by Cognition. Illusions, hallucinations and delusions debilitate cognition: Persons who are victims of cognitive disorders are disgrace  for those who are sound and well-set in cognition process of the brain.

Word, – The Master Communicator

‘Word’ is tool of communication and tool for communication: The tool is available only to humans’. Yes, that’s true; that’s an unquestionable truth. Word is an effective tool and means of communication  which is available only to humans.

Who invented word?  When was word invented? What role words play in languages of the world? Which way language came into being? Can there be language without the magic-wand  of ‘word’? Why animals, birds, and other living organisms cannot play the magic of ‘Word’? Waah! Wonderful word-wise questions, these really are!

Answers to those questions are still eluding. And that is the power of the “word-world”, the wonderful world of words.

There does not exist any meaningful researches that were carried out to establish the origin of ‘word’. No substantial and valid proof of evidence is available to answer those questions put forth above. In the said background, therefore, it is difficult to pin-point specific data as to when, where, how and who invented “word”.  However, it would be quite logical to conclude that spoken word belongs to the same process of evolution relating to Homo sapiens.

Compared to lower animals, one of the important developments that took place during the course of evolution was formation of vocal chord in human physique.  Complexity of the nervous system in human-brain-activity followed by the development of vocal chord differentiated the Homo sapiens from the lower animals. As a result, unlike birds and animals which can just grunt shrieks and sounds, humans became capable of vocalizing specific sounds to indicate or represent specific situations which they encountered.  Thus was where words originated as a means of communication among humans.

The particular Means of Communication System with the use of words is unique. It is an acquired skill of human brain but not an inborn capability. That is the reason why a newborn child can just only grunt certain sounds to express its physical urges for months, before it picks up words from others around, during the course of growth. That process of picking up sounds of words by infants is an after-borne conditioned reflex action.

In the beginning humans used words through some specific sounds to communicate with their co-partners. When the expression of sounds by words became systemic in terms of needs and desires, the human brain paved the way for conditioned nerve connections akin to the specific sounds of words uttered by fellow-humans for specific needs, on their onward journey in the path of evolution. The words thus continued as means of communication in the disguised style of spoken language. From there it took thousands of years for advanced humans to invent a system to put down the spoken words in writing for communication. Both ‘words’ and the word-induced ‘sounds’ are signals of communication.

Brain activity involves numerous reactions which enable the living organism to keep its survival tract as it is: Signals of words and sounds are very important reactions of brain activity in the survival tract of humans. Signals which communicate with each other among different species of living organisms including humans are classified under a Code name called, “Signal System”. It was the famous Physiologist, Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov who classified means of communication into Signal Systems in 1932 during his research into the physiological mechanism of speech. There are two systems of signals by which ideas, information and knowledge are conveyed and received.

In animals reality is signalized by the situations and the traces they leave behind in the cerebral hemispheres of its brain which come directly to the nerve cells through visual, auditory, smell, touch and taste receptors. This process is what humans also possess by way of impressions, sensations and notions in relation to the world around; the world that represents both the natural and the social environs.

But there is a definite exception here in so far as ‘word’ that is heard or ‘word’ that is seen (in writing) is concerned. Except for ‘word’ that is heard or word that is seen, the other mechanism of receiving and conveying reality of situations and traces they leave behind, belong to ‘First Signal System’. The first signal system revolves around in the form of Signs and Symbols. It is common for both the animals and the humans.

Then there is the other system, namely the ‘Second Signal System’ which is in the total possession of human brain. This exclusive human possession of Second Signal System is of words written and or of words spoken. The knowledge the word conveys would be of impressions, sensations, perceptions and conceptions in relation to the world around.

Process of understanding the meaning and knowledge that the word conveys, either separately or collectively, depends upon the working condition of the sensory centres in the cerebral cortex of each individual: Idiots, imbeciles and morons may not understand the meaning and or knowledge that word represents or conveys. But an intelligent person whose sensory reactions to signals from the environs are sharp, might in all probability, understand the meaning and knowledge the word conveys  with consistency as compared to a moron, imbecile or an idiot. That is not all: Words can force persons of normal mental conditions to undergo different feelings, emotions, pains, pleasures, imaginations and actions.

Humans cherish the additional facility and its utility available  through and by the engagement of Second Signal System while they overtake animals, birds and other species including their foes and friends to maim and succeed. Humans think, evaluate, conclude and act with using the magic wand of Second Signal System with or without the support of the First Signal System. The first Signal System of Signs and Symbols and the Second Signal System of Words have made human race as the Super Specie of all living organisms on earth.

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Origin of Language:
One of the important developments that took place during the course of evolution was formation of vocal chord in human physique. Complexity of the nervous system in human-brain-activity followed by the development of vocal chord differentiated the Homo sapiens from the lower animals. As a result, unlike birds and animals which can just grunt shrieks and sounds, humans became capable of vocalizing specific sounds to indicate or represent specific situations which they encountered. Thus was where words as language originated as means of communication among humans.
In the beginning humans used words through some specific sounds to communicate with their co-partners. When the expression of sounds by words became systemic in terms of needs and desires, the human brain paved the way for conditioned nerve connections akin to the specific sounds of words uttered by fellow-humans for specific needs, on their onward journey in the path of evolution. The words thus continued as means of communication in the disguised style of spoken language. From there it took thousands of years for advanced humans to invent a system to put down the spoken words in writing for communication. Both ‘words’ and the word-induced ‘sounds’ are signals of communication.
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Abdul Nazer Ramadan The above article may help to open the eyes of the believer of theory of evolution to denounce it. It is the formation of vocal chord not the evolution. Like wise we have never seen an ape committed suicide after his desperation over his dreams and hard ship. the dream and free thinking also not a part of evolution but formation in the special species called human being..,

 

Narayanan Pk Is it then the belief of creationism?

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Yes I do believe in creationism .

 

Narayanan Pk Okay, best wishes.

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Theory of evolution is a half way hypothesis… Concern mainly from the ape… apes also must have gone under evolution, if we think over it will reach up to a molecule and then the nothingness or vacuum. Only the similarity of the form of man with ape…See more

 

Narayanan Pk Theory of evolution does not portray that apes gave birth to humans.

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Definitely… If they are gone under evolution an ape must have gave birth a near human ape or ape-man in the crucial juncture of evolution to transform an ape in to man .

 

Narayanan Pk Adaption through equilibration is the core of evolution. What’s your view?

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan That means two different species ? Then all the argument of evolution will be collapsed. Existence of two identical creation or species with exchange of mannerism or characters ?

 

Narayanan Pk Apes and homo sapience belong to two different species.

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Then what was the form of homo sapiens before? they also must have undergone in evolution according to the theory, that is what I mentioned before .. It will reach to molecule then to vacuum.

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan and what is vacuum? and how it came to existence ?

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan There coming the importance of ever existing essence…!

 

Narayanan Pk What I absorbed from the theory of Evolution is here: If time permits, please have a go through:

There is Earth. There is life on Earth. There are innumerable living organisms on the earth. There are microbes, reptiles, birds, animals, monkeys and la…See more

My Science Blog – Science And Beyond

The Hypnotherapist Sentry-post Word, ‘Sentry’ means a soldier stationed at a place to stand guard: The place where the Sentry stands guard is called Sentry Post. The Sentry Post takes care of the place within its jurisdiction to prevent unauthorised entries. The purpose of keeping a Sentry Post is t…

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Abdul Nazer Ramadan First of all I would like to say that most of us have very much misconception about science. Science is not the ultimate truth or code of living, where as its a branch of study established for finding out the truth with utilizing available facilities a…See more

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Even if I agree the evolution theory for the sake of argument.

 

Narayanan Pk Thank you ANR: I was under the impression that the number of people who believe in creationism , especially those who are enlightened, is almost zero. However, two three questions remain to be answered by those who believe that the universe/earth was created by a Creator. Some of these questions are here: Who was that Creator? Is that Creator still all around? Where do that creator live or float? ……………..

 

Abdul Nazer Ramadan Instead of giving explanation I would rather narrate a real story which happened in Arabia. One of the renowned Islamic scholar, I forgot his name exactly, I think it’s Imam Abu Haneefa or Imam Malik, fixed a debate with an atheist of that time on the subject of existence of creator or God. Time and place fixed. People gathered around for the meeting and the scholar from the side of atheist reached on time. But the Imam not yet reached. people are waiting.. half an hour passed from the time of debate. At last he came and begged forgiveness for his delay and start to explain the reason to the people why he got delayed. He said on his way he has to cross one river and there was no boat on the bank of the river and he stand a while there not knowing what to do. Suddenly a tree fell down and became a boat and the boat rowed itself across the river. Transforming the tree in to boat took around half an hour so he is late for the debate.. He said “I am sorry for that happened” Listening the false story the atheist jumped and shouted. Liar!! Stupid story!! absurd .. We don’t believe it. You say ..without a carpenter tree become a boat … Impossible!!! We are not stupid to believe all this nonsense!!!
The Imam smiled at the atheist and said … Brother, Can’t you believe that a small tree can be a boat without a carpenter? … Good …and you say it’s a stupidity and I agree too ….and you came here to prove that all this universe has no creator. How can we believe your big nonsense then ?

Obviously that was the end of the debate.

 

Narayanan Pk Grand finale. Any way, with your consent, I am sharing the debate into myscienceblog.life-livewell.com

My Science Blog – Science And Beyond

The Hypnotherapist Sentry-post Word, ‘Sentry’ means a soldier stationed at a place to stand guard: The place where the Sentry stands guard is called Sentry Post. The Sentry Post takes care of the place within its jurisdiction to prevent unauthorised entries. The purpose of keeping a Sentry Post is t…

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Hypno Therapy And The Role Player Sentry Posts.

Clinical Hypnosis is a system of non-medicinal treatment for mental disorders caused by environal influences. In other words, clinical hypnosis is Hypnotherapy practiced by appropriately trained clinicians who use word-suggestions to cure patients after putting them under hypnosis.

Researchers have confirmed that Hypnotherapy is free from side effects; it does not resort to use of medicines. In hypnotherapy the Hypnotist uses select words of powerful suggestions for the purpose of therapy.

How hypnosuggestion brings out cures? Is there anything mysterious about it? These are two important questions that come up while evaluating hypnotherapy.

The physiological basis of Hypnotherapy is simple and understandable brain activity. In hypnotherapy, the active player is neither the Hypnotist nor the Suggestions the Hypnotist spells out, but it is the ground work executed by Sentry Posts, the isolated but active points existing in the central nervous system.

Dictionary defines Sentry as a soldier stationed at a place to stand guard: The place where the Sentry stands guard is called Sentry Post. The Sentry Post takes care of the place within its jurisdiction to prevent unauthorized entries. The purpose of keeping a Sentry Post is to protect the premises and to save its inhabitants. The engagement of Sentry Posts has become a life-style requirement of modern society. The practice ought to have become necessary as a sequence of job diversification and individual-cum-collective engagements of modern social order. In ancient times, parents and elders used to take care and keep guard of their family and property. There used to be no Sentries and Sentry Posts in those days.

Guarding safety of the clan can be traced as a biological trait of living organisms. May be, it was one of the components of evolution of species. Ants and other insects keep twenty four hour vigil around the holes and the leaves where their female partners lay eggs. Birds keep constant watch over their nests where eggs and chicks are housed. The same is the case with animals and monkeys of all types. The insects, birds, animals and monkeys take over themselves the duty of Guards along with their routine work for food and means of survival.

The sentry posts which we find around the living organisms including humans are located in the premises where they live. But, then, what about the individual physique where the need of sentry post is equally obvious? Apart from the body itself, there are innumerable invaders from outside the body to turtle the balance and equilibrium of the physic. For that too there exists ‘Sentry Posts’; the sentry posts which are more vigilant and responsive than the sentry posts that human community deploy for its safety. Sentry Posts in human brain not only sends out alerts but it also nurtures memory for the safety of the physic.

In the year 1927, the great Physiologist, Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov reached an irrevocable conclusion: It was about the existence of a Rapport Zone and certain points on duty in the zone:

While awake, the cerebral hemispheres of human brain represent a ‘system’. The system coordinates all parts of the brain with each other. The Coordination enables the sensory centres in the cortex to produce collective response to stimuli from external environs. The response helps bodily activities and cognitive functions to take place. When the process continues, the nerve cells start losing energy. Consequently, the cerebral areas become inhibited and the inhibition spreads to the entire brain and the physique as a whole. There thus happens what is known as Natural Sleep.

In the said brain activity there is yet another sphere of inhibition which produces partial sleep called Hypnosis. During hypnosis, the coordination of the System becomes absent. As a result, each segment of the brain responds to external stimuli in isolation. With reference to the partial, isolated inhibitory phase, I P Pavlov wrote:

“The following phenomenon is very often observed: Inhibition spreads over the cerebral hemispheres and sleep sets in. Nevertheless, certain points which I call points on duty or on guard in the rapport zone may remain active without being faded by inhibition. This is observed, for example, in the sleep of a miller who wakes up when the noise of the mill ceases, or in the sleep of the mother who wakes up at the faintest sound coming from her child but who is not disturbed by much louder sounds.”

The sentry posts get rapport with any or all of which are of serious concerns of the physic as revealed in the Pavlovian experiment. As explained by the Scientist, the mother sleeping with her loved, newborn child by her side seldom responds to calls for waking up even if one tries hard by shouting. But the moment her child starts crying, though the sound of crying is feeble, the mother abruptly wakes up. As for the mother, the safety of her child is the utmost concern: Here the sentry posts alerted the sensory centres in the mother’s brain. The impact of the alert was her sudden waking up. Such is the sensibility of the sentry post.

The duty of the sentry post in human brain is to keep a watch over sensory reactions to stimuli emanating from internal or external environs. If the reaction affects the interests of the physic, sentry posts send signals of alert to the sensory centres which are in partial inhibition. The alert signals excite the nerve cells for immediate action.

Turning to hypnotism, the most serious concern of sentry post in the nervous system of the person under hypnosis is the subject himself or herself. Therefore the sentry posts in the subject’s brain automatically build rapport with the Hypnotizer or the Hypnotist through temporary nerve connections called conditioned reflex. These temporary nerve connections are formed by the repeat suggestions made by the Hypnotist. Thus Hypnotist gets rapport with the subject or the hypnotized, through the activation of sentry posts. This basic brain activity is used for treatment of deranged mental conditions of patients.

Sentry posts keep suggestions made during hypnotic sleep in memory to be remembered and acted upon in accordance with the suggestions imposed by the Hypnotist. What is suggested to the subject during hypnotic sleep would remain in the subject’s memory unless removed through reverse suggestions.

Mental aberrations connected with abnormal nervous activity due to the influence of environs which might form temporary nerve connections called conditioned reflexes in the brain, can be set right through hypnotherapy. The environs can either be internal or external or both the internal and the external. Internal environs involve the physic whereas the external environs represent all that is outside the body. Disorders of muscular disarray, indigestion, breathing and cardiac functions belong to internal environs. External environs in the present context include natural furies, family, friends, foes, community, society, social order, rules, regulations, public utterances, ideological percepts, beliefs, religion, religious dictates, dogmas and similar other elements.

Mental imbalances may take place due to brain damages caused by injuries and serious diseases. In such cases hypnotherapy has only very limited role to play. Where the imbalances are created by the influence of stimuli emanating from various sources of environs, hypnotherapy can bring back normalcy to the patients. In such cases, the imbalance has been produced by conditioned reflexes.  It is such imbalances and aberrations laid by reflex action that are viable for hypnotherapy. Because of the rapport retained between sentry posts in the patient’s brain and the Hypnotist, repeat word suggestions for cure generate internal conditioned inhibition to deflect or redraw the conditioned reflex already formed which caused the earlier malady.

It is the sentry posts in nervous system that helps therapists to cure the mental disorders through hypnosuggestion. While under hypnosis, the sensory centres of the subject become isolated and independently react to stimuli without coordination between each other. As a result, the mind of the subject loses the faculty of reasoning. The situation demands the patients and relatives to be extra cautious while selecting the therapist because Suggestions of the Hypnotist will be acted upon by the patient’s sensory organs due to the irresistible rapport of the sentry posts.

In the above background, the hypnotherapist needs to be one who is clean in dealings with a personality of nascent behaviour apart from being appropriately trained. Besides, the Hypnotist shall have to ensure the presence of one or two close relatives of the patient inside the therapy centre as witnesses.

There are possibly no chances of causing injury to the patients by the Hypnotist through ill-intent suggestions because the sentry posts may force sudden waking up of the subject to react strongly against any misbehavior on the part of the hypnotist. However, the Hypnotherapist, the Patients and their near and dear Ones have to be cautious as cautious and alert as the Honorable Sentry Posts are.

Stress Management – Take the Tips.

Professionals who are busy in their work-engagements, quite often exhort  to their colleagues, “I am very stressed up”.

Well, that looks true: There is nothing unusual about the statement as such, because professionals in various fields of operations would be really in stressful situations. But there is something lacking in the perception of Stress in such statements. Most people use the word ‘stress’ to express their preoccupation with busy schedules and the speed at which they have to carry out their duties. Stress in its true sense does not represent such   state of affairs.

According to Oxford Dictionary, stress is a state of affairs involving demand on physical and mental energy. The dictionary adds further that a condition or circumstance which can disturb the normal physiological function is stress. In medical parlance, stress is defined as a perturbation of the body’s homeostasis.

The central nervous system in human brain has its protective mechanism to take care of the body as a whole in normal and in abnormal situations within certain limits. In challenging situations the nervous system prepares the physic for defensive action: This is done by releasing cortisone and adrenaline hormones. The hormones increase blood pressure to prepare the body to react to the situation created by increased demand on the physic. But when the body fails to counter the body-mind demand, the released hormones and the chemicals remain unused in the blood stream for long period of time. That situation compels the body in constant preparation to fight the situation or to flee from the situation. This is the basic background of acute stress and stress related consequences which the medical fraternity has to deal with.

Timely detection of stress enables the affected person to take adequate remedial measures and to save the situation in time. The common signs and symptoms of stress include memory loss, lack of concentration, poor judgment, seeing only the negative, anxious thoughts, constant worry, irritability, short temper, agitation, inability to relax, sense of loneliness and isolation, depression and unhappiness.

Untreated, acute stress will create  severe health hazards: They include body aches and pains, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, dizziness, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, loss of sex drive,  frequent colds, temptation for eating more or eating less, sleeping too much or sleeping too little, willful isolation from others, neglecting responsibilities and using alcohol and drugs as self help to relax.

With the rapid diversification of human activity, almost everybody comes face to face with severe stress situations. Stress originates from circumstances and surroundings to which human beings are condemned to respond and react. Such reactions are essential elements for survival and existence. The surroundings include needs of livelihood, relationship demands, chronic health problems, pressure at workplaces, traffic snarls, meeting deadlines, growing-up tensions, skill formations, competitions, different complexes and other social-cum-individualistic conditions. People react to these conditions in their own ways. Although the conditions invoke stress, such stress situations do not affect the majority. In some persons, however, the induced stress tends to persist and intensify as days pass on. These are the people who need to take care of the situation and choose measures for stress management.

Learning to realize the conditions and environs behind stress situations is the first and foremost requirement to manage and to control the ill-effects of acute stress that affects even the mental equilibrium of the afflicted.

There are many methods for coping up with stress. Usually practiced methods are change in lifestyle, relaxation techniques like yoga and physical exercises, listening to soothing music, deep breathing and personality development. Clinical hypnosis is another trusted treatment for Stress. These measures might help a stressed up persons to a great extent and save them from the malady. Once the person stops the exercises, it is very likely that the individual may slowly and steadily go back to the pains of Stress, again. The signs and symptoms of stress can also be caused by other psychological and medical problems. For a person experiencing any of the warning signs of stress, it is important for the person to see a doctor for a full evaluation. A competent medical practitioner can help determine whether or not the symptoms are stress-born.

Various studies and researches have confirmed that stress in moderate level is necessary for survival in the path of existence.  Stress responses are body’s best defense mechanism against inner and outer dangers: In a risky situation body releases stress hormones which instantly make the physic more alert and focused. Thereby the body gets prepared to act with increased strength and speed. It keeps a person sharp and ready for action. As a result moderate stress increases performance and help people to discover their inherent talents.

The best way to deal with Stress is to welcome stress: Understand the truth that stress is an ingrained human trait for existence. Let not panic take over the situation when stress-centric symptoms are observed. Instead, be cool; be engaged in the present rather than visualizing the experiences of past and achievements for the future; Look around and see the beauties and merits of the present. Stress, thereupon, becomes  “forgotten chapter”.

Prayer – Prayer for Benevolence, Prayer for Cure

Word, “prayer” reportedly originated from the old French word ‘preiere’: ‘Preiere’  means, “to obtain by entreaty”.

The essence, purpose and need of prayer is well known to everybody all across the world:  Every believer recognizes the nature and the purpose of prayer. There is nothing to surprise in the premise that even domestic animals know the essence of prayer but that is in a different context: When a pet dog is hungry, it screams in a peculiar way; cattle and goats are no different. The screams and cries of hungry domestic animals are signals sent out to draw  the attention of their foster Masters for feeds. In a sense, moods expressed by these animals are prayers for benevolence.

‘Prayer’ is explained as a solemn request to God  or to an object of worship for help. Prayer also means expression of thanks to god or the object of worship for benevolence received by the ones who prayed for the help. Prayer is, therefore, a religious service offered by believers. But outside religion, prayer may mean an earnest request without the appearance of divine shades, either for favors or for rights. For example, in traditional Judicial System, petitioners would address the Judges, “I pray, Your Honor”.

As in the case of every thought and action, evaluation and conclusion is the propriety of human nature: According to the propriety Prayers have been divided into different types: They include ADORATION Prayers, CONFESSION Prayers, THANKSGIVING Prayers, SUPPLICATION Prayers and INTERCESSORY Prayers; prayers which are directed to god for the benefit of self, so also for others.

Praising the Almighty god is Adoration Prayer. Adoration forms an important part of verses meant for propitiating god. In Confession Prayers devotees confess their sins to god for forgiveness. Thanksgiving Prayer is meant to express gratitude to the Almighty for  favors received by the faithful. It is by and through Supplication Prayer that believers seek blessings for themselves and their family. In Intercessory Prayer, the believer or a group of believers beg to god for showering mercy on others; for curing diseases of others.

For long, the question how far is prayer effective or beneficial to cure illnesses has been a serious thought. Dawn of twentieth Century saw number of experiments conducted in this direction: Some reports said that the American government set aside 23 million dollars for scientific experiments for the purpose. More than ten research centres had sprung up in the US even though the believers objected the proposal to investigate prayer within the frame work of science.

Experiments were conducted in two different ways for establishing validity of prayer for curing illnesses: In one, Prayers were offered with the knowledge of the patients. In the other, prayers were carried out without the knowledge of the patients.

The New Mexico University conducted experiments on forty alcoholics who were patients in a rehabilitation centre. It was in the year, 1997. The alcoholics included both women and men. Prayers were recited after  obtaining their written consent. The prayer session continued uninterruptedly for a couple of months. On completion of the session, a series of tests were made to ascertain the effects of the prayer in reducing their alcoholism and debilities. To the surprise of all, it was found that not a single subject had any improvement, instead they became more depressed and more addicted. Not only that, most of them became ill and unsound.

During the years 1982 and 1983, another series of experiments were carried out without the knowledge of patients. It was an Intercessory Prayer session. The Southern Medical Journal in its July 1988 edition gave full details of the prayer. The heading of the article was, “Positive Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer in a Coronary Care Unit Population”.

The experiment was reportedly conducted by one Dr.Randolph C. Berd, MD. Apart from being an expert medical practitioner, Dr. Berd was a faithful follower of a particular Christian Sect. He selected 393 inpatients from a rehabilitation centre. These patients were divided into two groups, one group to be subjected to prayer with their knowledge and consent and the other group without being informed about the prayers for their recovery. The first group was code named as ‘IP Group’ and the Second as ‘Control Group’. The Doctors, Nurses and the faithful who were to conduct prayers for the patients were not allowed to know the details of the patients and for which group they were to provide their services.

The responsibility for offering prayers was assigned to followers of “Born Again” Christian Sect. The prayer hall was arranged in a room outside the hospital premises. The Doctors ensured that the health status of the selected patients was almost equal to one another. There were 192 patients in the IP Group while the number of patients in Control Group was 201. Dr. Berd believed that these arrangements would give reliable results in terms of clinical validity.

The assignees prayed for the recovery of the patients in both the Groups continuously for three-four weeks. On completion of the service, the doctors were requested to identify the patients who were cured as ‘Good’; the patients who made improvement as ‘Middle’ and the patients whose condition became worse as ‘Serious’. While there were none in the group ‘Good” there were hardly anyone in the ‘Middle’ group. All the patients fell in the ‘Serious’ category.

The experiments so elaborately carried out by Dr. Berd and his associates were a sheer waste of time and resources: Nothing concrete with proof of evidence could be established in the experiments. Similar Studies were conducted in AD 2001 by Mayo Clinic but could not prove any effect for prayer on the patients. Another story of failure was published in the American Heart Journal of 2006 edition. All the efforts made so far to prove scientifically the effect of prayer for cure of diseases or improvement of patient-health ended miserably in the negative.

God is an entity that exists only in human thoughts. Prayer and belief in god are the products of human thoughts. Patients are real, their diseases and illnesses are real. Both patients and the diseases exist in the physical plane. No amount of subjective imaginations, subjective thoughts can impact on objective reality. Attempts to prove objectively the benefits of subjective prayer shall therefore be futile.

There is, however, another dimension for the picture of prayers. Dedicated supplication prayer by individuals will be  tiresome task for human brain. It causes over excitation of sensory centres in the cerebral cortex which will result in inhibition followed by hallucinatory experiences. These experiences may be in the form of relief from pains, body aches, worries, agonies, sorrows, grief and enlightenment. In the longer run, these temporary reliefs will make the faithful devotee to ignore the physical and neurological defections. As a result, timely medical or psychiatric treatment will elude the believer which will result in serious consequences.

Palmistry – The Mansion of Obscurantism

Palmistry is a member of the Occult Family like Astrology. Palmistry is another fortune telling exercise. For forecasting the future, Astrology looks for stars and planets in the skies and prescribes predictions on the basis of the supposed positions of a few selected celestial bodies in the astrological chart drawn up by Astrologers.  But, Palmistry looks for the shape of hands, length of fingers, lines inside the palm, marks and bumps on the left and or right hands of the people who fall prey for palmistry and its predictions.

Palmistry is known under different names: Palm Reading, Hand Reading, Chirology, Hastha jyotish and Hastha shasthra are other names used for Palmistry. Hastha Shasthra and Hastha Jyothish are Sanskrit words where Hastha means ‘Hand’, Shasthra stands for ‘Science’ and Jyothish denotes Astronomy. No wonder, for the inventors of the occult practices, astrology and palmistry were also faculties of Science. But then, one should have to admit that the origin of these practices belonged to a period when light of science was yet to reach visibility and brightness.

Palmistry is believed to have originated in ancient India, as part of its enlightened philosophical thoughts. Hundreds of years ago, Sage Valmiki is said to have written many verses revealing various facets of Palmistry when the rest of the world was still in the dark about the subject. Ancient scriptures contain verses on Palmistry and the virtues of its practice. It is presumed that from India astrology spread to China, Tibet, Egypt, Persia and Europe. One heresy is that Alexander the Great, with the assistance of Aristotle used Palmistry to examine the  abilities of his military officers. About the lines on one’s palm, Aristotle is stated to have remarked, “Lines are not written into the human hand without reason. They emanate from heavenly influences and man’s own individuality”.

Hippocrates is said to have used palmistry to support clinical procedures. Such was the eminence and stature Palmistry held in the Occident in those days.

In the Oriental, other than in India, Palmistry practice was popular in Tibet, China and Persia. In the past, Palmistry was a flourishing practice among Hindus, Sumerians, Tibetans, Hebrews, Babylonians and Persians. It doesn’t mean that Palmistry is no more in practice today: The truth is otherwise: Despite the spread of science and scientific temper among the people, there are believers who go after Palmistry to seek clarity on their survival chart in the future. The trend keeps the fortune telling clan called by different names like Palmists, Palm Readers, Hand Readers, Hand Analysts or Chirologists to earn a living pitching on the gullibility of their clientele.

The Palmist scrutinizes life line, heart line, head line, cuts, curves, shapes and other cross marks in the palm of the fortune seekers. Then he makes predictions based on certain believed parameters in the shape, curvature, length and cuts in the lines on the palm.

There is no proof of evidence that the lines, marks, shapes et al in the hands of the subject has any relation to what is going to happen in or during the life-span of a person. As in the case of any other obscurantistic  beliefs, no one is entitled to question the validity or truth of the predictions. The clientele who pay for the predictions meekly but enthusiastically leave the Palmist with folded hands.

The lines and the shapes of the hands mostly depend on the size of the body of the subject. The lines in the hands can have some bearing on the type of body and the way one bends the palms and the fingers. These facts have no substance in Palmistry and these facts do not save Palmistry out of the clutches of obscurantism.

Palmistry is a hoax: Text books on Palmistry states that a long and straight life line in the palm is a sign of healthy long life.  Similar is the case of heart lines and headlines. The famous Rationalist of Sree Lanka, late Dr. A. T. Kovoor, in association with his doctor friends in a hospital at Colombo had disproved the claims of Palmistry in this regard. The team found that some of the dead bodies of young men in the mortuary in the hospital had lengthy life lines, headlines and heart lines on their palms: Still those young men had to face untimely death.

Palmistry is a fallacious tract, devoid of even a trace of scientific truth in its path. Palmists  are disguised cheats, whether they know it or not, the fact remains that the innocent superstitious believers are subjugated to suffer mentally, physically, culturally and monetarily at the hands of Palmists who conduct the trade of palmistry.  No other creatures other than humans have that peculiar trait to build mansions in the air using non-existent materials and gain material benefits out of nothing. Palmistry along with other occult practices lives in such mansions in the air. The mansions are there for rentals to the cheats and for visits by the obscurantists.

Occultism – The Clandestine Benevolence Of The Yore

Occultism is one of the most nefarious and ill conceived beliefs  woven out of ill-intent designs. Occultism is widely practiced, the world over. Occult practitioners had poured out so many explanations and attributes to occultism which are awesome. The attributes are pain-filled attraction for the ill-intent believers.

Awe and wonder are there in all paranormal experiences, but the experience that is bestowed by and through occultism is fearsome for one thing and destructive for the other; both are too relevant that it cannot be ignored.

‘Occultism is the knowledge of and engagement with Supernatural Powers; occultism surpasses all the powers of the Nature including that of the Humans. Occultism is no Ordinary knowledge but it can be acquired and disclosed only by the Initiated Ones from among the human beings’. Thus goes the twisty explanations attributed to occultism. The route to the abode of occultism is misty and it is impenetrable by common sense.

The word ‘Occult’ owes its origin to ‘Occultus’ of Latin linguafranca: Occultus refers to something which is secret and clandestine. The clandestine knowledge of Occultism is secret: The secret knowledge is the propriety of the ones who are the Initiated humans: Initiated humans are the ones who are introduced to the hidden, secret and clandestine knowledge of the supernatural powers.

The aim and purpose of the hidden, secret, paranormal and out of the natural phenomena of Occultism is focussed on mischievous and clandestine dealings: The dealings are handled by section of the humans who are the Initiated Ones.

There are innumerable number of members in the Occult family: Telepathy, Clairvoyance, Alchemy, Astrology, Palmistry, Parrotstrology, Ouija, Tarot, Sorcery, Tantra, Sex magic, Transcendental meditation, Yogic trance, Nudism, Subconscious mind, Super conscious mind and similar other concepts and practices live well within the Occult Family. Of these, the most acclaimed occult members are Telepathy and Clairvoyance. All the occult practices owe their parentage to the so-called paranormal, supernatural and out of the world entities.

Beginning of occult practices can be traced to the origin of Beliefs: Long before Homo sapiens reached the stage of civil society, what the wandering prehistoric humans, wandering for food and shelter in the dangerous terrain on the surface of earth, feared the most was wild animals, thunder, lightning, rains and floods. They started believing that these calamitous agents are the creation of unknown powers and that pleasing of the unknown, supernatural powers would help them defeat the odds of the nature. Thus was the beginning of Belief in supernatural powers; belief that was born out of fear. The belief thus evolved, started traversing in two distinct directions. One path followed rituals and practices for propitiating god for the good of a group of humans which later became religion. The other path resorted to propitiating the supernatural for maleficent objectives. The latter category of pursuits resulted in the formation of Occultism and Occult practices. All the religions, including the antique and the modern, stoutly follow occultism as the negative path of religious benevolence.

Occultism is closely linked to religion and religious beliefs. Religious Texts teach that there is a malicious power which is almost equal but opposite to the divine powers of the almighty god. By propitiating this satanic power, the Initiated ones can create secret experiences which are beyond or outside the scope of science and scientific inquiry. Such experiences belong to the Occult Family. Experiences of occultism are believed to traverse through an extraneous sense which is described as the ‘Sixth Sense’.

All humans and almost all higher animals have five senses. They represent the faculties of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. These sensory experiences are produced by the processes of excitation and inhibition of the five sensory centres like, visual centre, auditory centre, olfactory centre and motor centre situated in the cerebral cortex of the brain. In the absence of the existing five sense organs and the sensory centres, no one including the people of extreme religious faiths and the persons of the deepest spiritual achievements, can ever have any sensory experiences. Scientists have proved that persons whose cortex had been damaged did not have sensory experiences. Therefore the story of existence of sixth sense other than the established five senses is a fallacy. That is proof enough to establish that occultism is just another trickery to malign the innocence of believers.

Experiences relating to things and matters which have objective reality in the physical plane are generated by brain activity. However, experiences relating to things and matters which do not have objective reality in the physical plane can also take place: Such experiences too are the working results of the nervous system. The experiences of the latter category can be traced to abnormal working of the nervous system of the beholders. Neuroscience has proved that these subjective experiences are delusion centric illusions and hallucinations.

Those experiences stand real for the ones who experience them because of their deranged mental conditions. Occultism is one among the several mystic concerns of the antique philosophies: Perhaps, in the absence of science and scientific methods of evaluation, the thinkers of the past had no other way available before them to codify subjective experiences. The only route in front of them was the path of mysticism: They channelized all the then inexplicable experiences through extra- sensory and supernatural by-routes. Thus was the emergence of Occultism which stands out today as the store house of obscurantism before the light of Science and Technology. Occultism will remain and continue to remain as long as human race continues to remain steeped in gullibility and superstitious beliefs. Science has saved many from the clutches of obscurantism; let science do what science need to do and save many more from the strangle-hold of Occultism.