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Word, ‘Sentry’ means a soldier stationed at a place to stand guard: The place where the Sentry stands guard is called Sentry Post. The Sentry Post takes care of the place within its jurisdiction to prevent unauthorised entries. The purpose of keeping a Sentry Post is to protect the premises and to save its inhabitants.
The engagement of Sentry Posts has become a life-style requirement of modern society. The practice ought to have become necessary as a sequence of job diversification and individual-cum-collective engagements of modern social order. In ancient times, parents and elders used to keep guard of their family and property. There used to be no Sentries and Sentry Posts in those days.
Guarding safety of the clan can be traced as a biological trait of living organism. May be, it was one of the components of evolution of species. Ants and insects keep twenty four hour vigil around the holes and the leaves where their female partners lay eggs. Birds keep constant watch over their nests where eggs and chicks are housed. The same is the case with animals and monkeys of all types. The insects, birds, animals and monkeys take over themselves the charge of Guards along with their routine work for food and means of survival.
The sentry posts which we find around the living organisms including humans are located in the premises where they live. But, then, what about the individual physique where the need of sentry posts is equally important? Apart from the body itself, there are innumerable invaders from outside the body to turtle the balance and equilibrium of the physic. No doubt, for that too there exists ‘Sentry Posts’ in the brain; the sentry posts which are more vigilant and responsive than the sentry posts that human community deploy for its safety. Sentry Posts in human brain not only sends out alerts but it also nurtures memory for the safety of the physic.
During the year 1927, the great Physiologist, Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov reached an irrevocable conclusion: It was about the existence of a Rapport Zone and certain points on duty in the zone:
While awake, the cerebral hemispheres of human brain represent a ‘system’. That system coordinates all parts of the brain with each other. The Coordination enables the sensory centres in the cortex to produce collective response to stimuli from external environs. The response helps bodily activities and cognitive functions to take place. When the process continues, the nerve cells start losing energy. Consequently, the cerebral areas become inhibited and the inhibition spreads to the entire brain and the physique as a whole. There thus happens what is known as Natural Sleep.
In the said brain activity there is yet another sphere of inhibition which produces partial sleep called Hypnosis. During hypnosis, the coordination of the System becomes absent. As a result, each segment of the brain responds to external stimuli isolatedly. With reference to the partial, isolated inhibitory phase, I P Pavlov wrote:
“The following phenomenon is often observed: Inhibition spreads over the cerebral hemispheres and sleep sets in. Nevertheless, certain points which I call points on duty or on guard in the rapport zone may remain active without being faded by inhibition. This is observed, for example, in the sleep of a miller who wakes up when the noise of his mill ceases, or in the sleep of the mother who wakes up at the faintest sound coming from her child but who is not disturbed by much louder sounds.”
The sentry posts get rapport with any or all of which are of serious concerns of the physic as revealed in the Pavlovian experiment. As explained by the Scientist, the mother sleeping with her loved, newborn child by her side seldom responds to calls for waking up even if one tries hard by shouting. But the moment her child starts crying, though the sound of crying is feeble, the mother abruptly wakes up. As for the mother, the safety of her child is the utmost concern: Here the sentry posts alerts the sensory centres in the mother’s brain. The impact of the alert was her sudden waking up. Such is the sensibility of the sentry post.
The duty of the sentry post in human brain is to keep a watch over sensory reactions to stimuli emanating from internal or external environs. If the reaction affects the interests of the physic, sentry posts send signals of alert to the sensory centres which are in partial inhibition. The alert signals excite the nerve cells for immediate action.
Turning to hypnotism, the most serious concern of sentry post in the nervous system of the person under hypnosis is the subject himself or herself. Therefore the sentry posts in the subject’s brain automatically build rapport with the Hypnotizer or the Hypnotist through temporary nerve connections called conditioned reflex. These temporary nerve connections are formed by the repeat suggestions made by the Hypnotist. Thus Hypnotist gets rapport with the subject or the hypnotized, through the activation of sentry posts. This basic brain activity is used for treatment of deranged mental conditions of patients.
Sentry posts keep suggestions made during hypnotic sleep in memory to be remembered and acted upon in accordance with the suggestions imposed by the Hypnotist. What is suggested to the subject during hypnotic sleep would remain in the subject’s memory unless removed through reverse suggestions.
Mental imbalances may take place due to brain damages caused by injuries and serious diseases. In such cases hypnotherapy has only very limited role to play. Where the imbalances are created by the influence of stimuli emanating from various sources of environs, hypnotherapy can bring back normalcy to the patients. In such cases, the imbalance has been produced by conditioned reflexes. It is such imbalances and aberrations laid by reflex action that are viable for hypnotherapy. Because of the rapport retained in between sentry posts in the patient’s brain and the Hypnotist, repeat word suggestions for cure generate internal conditioned inhibition to deflect or redraw the conditioned reflex already formed which caused the earlier malady. It is the sentry posts in nervous system that helps therapists to cure the mental disorders through hypnosuggestion.
In the above background, the hypnotherapist needs to be one who is clean in dealings with a personality of nascent behaviour apart from being appropriately trained. Besides, the Hypnotist shall have to ensure the presence of one or two close relatives of the patient inside the therapy centre as witnesses.
There are possibly no chances of causing injury to the patients by the Hypnotist through ill-intent suggestions because the sentry posts may force sudden waking up of the subject to react strongly against any misbehavior on the part of the hypnotist. However, the Hypnotherapist, the Patients and their near and dear Ones have to be cautious as cautious and vigilant as the Honorable Sentry Posts are.
If something is projected as out of science or beyond the reach of science, including those which are within the human thoughts, then that something ought to have to be non-existent anywhere. It is because reach of science has no limits.
There is, however, a section of thinkers and pseudo-intellectuals who think otherwise: For them all beliefs and faiths in soul and spirits are beyond the reach of science. They claim that beliefs, faiths, soul and spirits are invisible and they have no physical existence and that therefore science has no say in these matters.
Visibility is a visual experience nurtured by brain. There are many invincible things in the universe like air and various types of gases. Simply because these are invisible to naked eye, they are not out of science and scientific studies.
The concept that there are things in the universe which are out of the reach of science has arisen because the beholders of the concept do not understand what science is.
Science is a systemic branch of knowledge; science is a branch of study based on the operation of general laws applicable in the physical or material world. Anything that exists outside the physical, material world, if such a thing exists, can be construed as being outside the scope of science. But then the question that arises in the context is as to what would be that thing which is outside the material, physical world?
All kinds of beliefs, faiths, beliefs of soul and spirits are created by human brain. No animals, birds and other living organisms except humans have any belief or faith in and about god, soul, spirits and innumerable other supernatural entities. The central nervous system of human brain reached limitless complexity enabling it to fathom deep into subjective imaginations pertaining to everything including beliefs.
Brain is an inseparable part of human body which exists in the material physical plane as part and parcel of Universe. Therefore imaginations and beliefs created and nurtured in human brain is within the reach of science; all sorts of beliefs, beliefs in god, spirits and soul are accessible to scientific evaluations and conclusions.
Ever since homo-sapiens species evolved on the surface of Earth, their brain activity of thoughts and actions started following a two-way traffic route. One of the routes they followed confined itself within the frame-work of subjective thoughts and ideas while the other one they pursued was based on objective reality. The path of Subjective thoughts is based on contextual imaginations made without tangible evidence. That process of subjective imaginations which the perceivers could reach out was easy and simple to postulate. On the other side, objective reality stands face to face with real objects where no imaginations are called for to find a position in the physical plane.
As far as science is concerned both the above mentioned two-way traffic routes followed by human thoughts are within the scope and reach of science. Today the Study of neuroscience is in a very advanced stage: Discoveries made by the great Physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov during the first part of the twentieth century have proved that all kinds of sensations, perceptions, conceptions and judgements are the product of brain cells which are facilitated by and through the working of unconditioned and conditioned reflexes with the aid of First and Second signal systems.
In the above said back ground, it can conclusively assert that there is nothing in the world which is out of science; which is beyond the scope and reach of science. Let therefore the gloom-dreamers continue their somnambulistic sleep walking carrying their beliefs, faiths in soul, sprits and other supernatural entities on their head: For optimists of objectivism, science is everything; science has no limitations. Science spreads light in every area of thoughts and actions of human brain.
Feminism is a strategic movement which stands for equal rights and opportunities for women in line with those enjoyed by men in political, economic, social and cultural fields including education and employment. Feminism may also be described as an organized system of activities aimed at achieving women’s rights and preserving their interests. Feminism targets the global vision that men and women deserve equality in opportunities, personal treatments, mutual respect and all rights that men enjoy. Feminism therefore demands that social inequality based on gender and skin colour should be wiped out from the face of Earth.
There is no clear-cut evidence to prove as to when and where exactly feminism originated in the world. Some researchers have made vague presumptions that fight for equal rights for women could be traced to the Middle age period in the Middle East saying that early reforms in Islam allowed women to divorce and claim inheritance. But the presumption is questionable because female gender has been a tool for abuse and oppression in every religion throughout the history and the right to divorce and inheritance could never be regarded as achievements made by feminists in the Middle East in those primitive days. The stated rights in the matter of divorce and inheritance for women ought to have been made available to women by male religionists of the faith and it cannot at any rate be taken as an achievement made by the female.
References in some books written by early female writers show incidents of verbal defence made against sexual abuse and harassments meted out by males. The first such reported reference is in the book “Epître au Dieu d’Amour” penned by French writer Christine de Pizan (AD 1364 – 1430). In that reference, though it lacks clarity, it could be assumed that feminism as a stream of thought to fight for female rights originated during 14th or early 15th Century AD.
In advanced democratic societies, the organised system of feminism could achieve progress in social, cultural, economic, and personal matters as well as in the field of education and employment. Similarly feminist movements in secular-democratic Countries could garner support from various sections of people including male dominated social organisations which helped female genre to vote, to hold public offices, to earn fair and equal pay, to own property and also to achieve equality in matters of matrimony, protection from uncontrolled tirades of rape and sexual harassments.
Of late, certain section of feminist organisations appears encouraging male participation in their fight to achieve social approval and engagement for gender equality. As a result, in general, the present day feminism cannot be taken as a movement confined to females alone: The term ‘feminism’ cannot, in that context, be attributed to a movement of female gender. But some section of feminists furiously oppose the idea of male participation in the movement exhorting that male participation would end up in nauseating problems due to the time-born traditional patriarchy. However, taking into account the need for total security for females and transformation of the society in general, it is essential that any organised or unorganised feminist movement shall have to go ahead as a united front consisting of both the genders. Then only the traditional practices of male domination including the age old patriarchy could be demolished.
Presently Feminist movement particularly in the Western Countries is divided in terms of Waves as First Wave, Second Wave and Third Wave. Each Wave deals with different issues related to feminism. The First Wave refers to the women’s movement which fought for right to vote during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Second Wave belongs to the women’s liberation movement of the 1960s. It fought for social and legal rights for women. Then the Third Wave is the resurgent operations for achieving what could not be achieved through the first and second Waves. The movement that carries on its efforts since the 1990s is called the Third Wave Feminism.
Whatever be the classifications, feminist movement could spread a strong message among various segments of the society and through it to the conscious of the authorities responsible for the welfare of the people. With the advent of Social Media like, twitter and facebook, the message of feminism could attract wide range of tech-savvy genre and engage them in the movement all across the world. That forced the governments as well as non-government organisations to introduce pro-active measures for wiping out inequalities and sufferings facing the female gender both in developed as well as underdeveloped countries irrespective of their religion, caste, colour and culture. The achievements could undeniably be attributed to the modern feminist movement, executed by and through female-male participation. The joint-venture entrepreneurship has a long way to tread because of the strong religion-centric, deep-rooted caste system, colour discriminations and economic factors which still rule the roost in Countries like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, African nations and many other Countries.
As in the case of any other movement, feminism too needs the female-male participation as a gender-free neo-neutral Global Body. The reason behind that concept has rational basis: It is an undeniable truth that due to biological and procreative reasons there are differences between female and male genders. Though women have more communication skills, practical solutions for problems, emotion and empathy towards others and skill to manage stress-situations, the participation of men cannot be denied for men in the prevailing social, cultural and patriarchal domestic situations can do things and matters shrewdly employing muzzle and vocal skills.
All species consist of both male and female genders with an exception of a miniscule lot called the ‘transgender’; but transgender itself is a gender and therefore, it too belongs to the species of homo sapience: Existence of the species in the survival track of Nature is a joint-venture enterprise carried out through female-male participation. Therefore, any movement to achieve its ultimate targeted growth, female-male participation is a must: And there lies the global need for tuning ‘Feminism’ into a female-male joint venture entrepreneurship.
Independent studies have revealed certain hidden historical truth about ancient India that is known as Bharat. The ancient India was the epicenter of a philosophy which was based on materialism. The people of the era discussed the materialist philosophy and practiced materialism in their day to day life. It was a scientific way of life that prevailed in those days of the past.
Historians have picked up threads of those thoughts and practices and they codified them under the title, “Charvaka Samhita” which gives a clear picture of the ancient materialistic philosophy that was the order of thoughts and actions of the people. The settlement of those people was centered on Sindhu and Gangetic river belts which formed part of ancient Bharat.
The materialist philosophy of Charvaka is reported to have developed during 7th Century BCE: That was the period when the saga of world renunciation started spreading among developing communities in different parts of the world.
Charvaka philosophy upheld strict materialistic perceptions: According to the perceptions, those matters which have no objective reality, does not exist in the universe. The Charvaka School of materialism was popular and was practiced by people of the clan for a very long time. The Philosophy rejected everything unless that could be proved as true through and by sensory experiences.
Charvaka philosophy stood as the most irreligious and skeptical ideology ever devised and practiced anywhere across the Globe, in the past. It was a highly developed civilization of ancient India and that civilized, materialistic society of scientific ideologies and pursuits is also known as Indus Valley Civilization. The valley covered areas including Indus river belt in the present day Pakistan and northwest India.
Things did not go smooth for the atheistic society of Charvaka thoughts: The scientific way of life that prevailed in the Indus Valley had to face the biggest body blow by BCE 15th century. That was the time of Aryan migration into the Indian sub-continent particularly the area covering the Indus Valley Civilization of the Materialist-Charvaka Society. The body blow was the biggest tragedy that wiped out science and scientific pursuits of ancient India. Many historians call Aryan migration as Aryan invasion, may be, because their arrival was not in search of livelihood but to capture power and to establish their supremacy.
Aryans belonged to ancient central Asia and Europe including areas covering Hindu Kush Mountains. Their belief system was called Zoroastrianism; Zoroastrianism was the belief system of Persia, the present day Iran. Zoroastrianism is believed to have been introduced by one mythological figure named Zoroaster in the 6th century BCE. He perceived the ideas of God, Heaven, Hell, Evil spirits et al which form part and parcel of every present-day Religion in the world.
By nature Aryans were a set of aggressive nomadic tribesmen and they were cattle herders by profession. They migrated to Indus Valley plains in large numbers. They vehemently let loose and forcibly spread their traditional beliefs and rituals in the Sindhu and Gangetic river belts eroding steadily the prevailing Indus Valley Civilization; alongside they thrust their rituals and ritualistic practices upon the local Charvaka community.
The culture and life style the invaders brought with them were entirely different from that of the original inhabitants. They converted the fertile land they occupied into prosperity with agriculture and trade. As years passed by, they the migrant Aryan-invaders began to call themselves as Hindus because of their proximity with the Sindhu River. The contextual reason for such a change is explained on the basis of a purported fact that there was no letter ‘S’ in Persian linguafranca and hence the visitors replaced the letter “S” in the word ‘Sindhu’ with ’H’ and thus they became “Hindus”.
The Aryans codified their ritualistic practices under a caste system called “Chaturvarna Vyavastha”. The Varna Vyavastha, the system, was built on the criteria of skin color and supposed spiritual-knowledge-pool of the clan: They, then, thrust the Varna Vyavastha upon the local populace by force.
Under the Chaturvarna Vyavastha, Brahmins, the topmost layer in the system, were the custodians of a perverted intellectualism. Their intellectualism transgressed into total subjectivism replacing all materialistic thoughts at every level. Science and its application in social and cultural spheres of human pursuits were replaced by Brahminical spirituality pushing black-brown-skinned original inhabitants into the lower strata. The lower strata, accordingly, got de-classified, one after the other, as Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Shudras keeping Brahmins at the top of all.
Brahmins established ultimate supremacy in every operational area for amassment of wealth, prosperity and authority. The process continued till the total annihilation of materialistic thoughts of Charvaka philosophy from the face of India almost altogether. Whatever vestiges of the materialistic philosophy remained, they are now scattered here and there under different names such as Humanists, Skeptics, Atheists and Rationalists.
Dangerously aggressive affiliates of Hinduism, today, have taken over the task of spreading all that is against science and scientific temper of the society. Except for a few intellectuals, almost all Indians today are under the cloud of this peculiar trend of the cloudy darkness which is totally opposite to the shiny light of scientific temper and scientific attitude of the ancient culture. Also, in the current scenario, under the guise of democracy, the aggressive affiliates of the post Aryan invader-clan broke into Political arena, as well: They are playing the fiddle of religious rhythms to attract the people towards subjective ideologies. Thus the ancient India of materialist philosophy is now tracking the path of the spiritualistic philosophy. The divide between the philosophical thoughts of materialism and the philosophical thoughts of spiritualism is widening steadily across Indian subcontinent as years pass by.
An invisible, mischief-laden misty cloud called Mid brain Activation Technique has started spreading its tentacles for quite some time, over the Indian sub-continent and from there over other Countries, enticing gullible parents of school and college going children in the age-group of ten to fifteen years. The parents are attracted towards the so-called mid brain activation program because of the bold promises made by the organizers of the training program that their children becomes super-intelligent in studies as well as in other operational areas of their life once they undergo the training.
An institute in India, named Genius Mind Academy, reportedly the first of its kind in the Country, started Mid-brain activation training program during the year 2005. Another institute in Mumbai began providing training of its own Mid Brain Activation technique in the year 2010. Apart from Mumbai, almost all other cities and towns including Bangaluru (Bangaluru) are also leading the race. These institutions have extended their activities to more than twenty States in India and also to foreign Countries like Dubai, Yemen, Africa, New Zealand, Canada and Australia.
The minimum monthly fee these institutions charge on the parents of the children varies from Rupees Fifteen Thousand to Twenty-five Thousand per month. Naturally therefore only super-rich parents go after the super-intelligent-building program for their children. The truth behind the whole drama, however, is that the only motive and purpose of the organizers is to make money without any efforts and investments.
Propagandists of the mid-brain activation technique assert that the program intended for children is directed at making the children super-intellectuals endowed with extraordinary skills. For that purpose they first purportedly equilibrate the functions of both the right and left brain sectors of the subjects. The left-right mid-brain equilibration, according to the Visionary-trainers, increases the depth of memory pool; improves self-confidence; builds up higher imagination capability for planning and creation; brings stability of emotional force and increases learning prowess of the trainees. In that back-ground it is quite natural that the parents would go to any extent to make their kids the super-best. That is certainly the compelling force which pulls the parents to queue up before the promoter-trainers to get their kids admitted for mid-brain activation training irrespective of the fact that they have to shell out huge sums of money every month.
For outsiders, however, mid brain activation training looks very simple but the trainers and propagandists claim otherwise. The latter group asserts that the technique creates ‘Intuition’. The intuition enables children to see and undergo sensory experiences even when their eyes are tightly covered with cloth. With eyes closed they can read books, tell the page numbers, locate different objects and name them, identify colors, read news papers, tell what is behind a wall, walk safely, and do cycling, carry out shooting, play games on a PC; all of course with their eyes tightly closed.
As stated, for igniting mid brain activation, the children are blind folded before they undergo the training. Then they are directed to do certain type of crude yoga steps like bending legs and hands to different directions and up and down, take long breathe-ins and breathe-outs. That is all the basics of the training. Thereafter, with eyes blindfolded, the children are directed to read titles and page numbers of some book, identify color and keep things like plastic cubes in line with shapes and sizes.
There ends the training; there starts the subjugation and loot endured by the misguided, irresponsible, gullible parents for the sake of a jugglery-show. In order to make mid brain activation technique attractive, the loot-monger clan of trainers propagate that the training is based on neuroscience. According to the postulation, inside the cerebrum of human brain there is a section called the inter-brain that lies between the left and right hemispheres. That part of the brain is the ‘third brain’. Third brain when energized through their training program improves the capabilities of the human thoughts and actions including consciousness and intuitions.
Intuition is projected as the cardinal factor behind mid brain activation technique meant to create advanced levels of intelligence. For the proponents of the training program, the most important force that is generated through the third brain activation is ‘intuition’. According to their propaganda, intuition enhances consciousness both of which help the trainees to become ’super-intelligent’ in their existential pursuits.
Intuition is a subjective imagination postulated by believers long before the Middle Ages and it continues to be a part of all major religions across the world over. According to the belief system, intuition exists in the spirit world and it traverses through sixth sense. Concepts of the spirit-world and sixth-sense are absurd ideas which have no scientific basis. There is no spirit pervading the universe to create or to destroy anything in the World. Since there is no spirit world, the ideologists’ claims about intuition have also no space in the physical plane.
Similarly, the story of sixth sense is also a fallacy. All humans and all higher animals have only five senses. These senses represent the faculties of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. These abilities of human brain owe its functionality to the excitation and inhibition of nerve cells in the five sensory centres like, visual center, auditory center, olfactory center and motor center located in the cerebral cortex. In the absence of the existing five senses and sensory centres, no one including the people of the extreme religious faiths and the persons of the deepest spiritual achievements, can have any sensory experiences. Non-existent Sixth sense cannot help anyone to receive or perceive any information.
On the other side, Consciousness is a mental faculty of knowing the surroundings and matters of existence. While consciousness can be part of memory, concept of intuition helps memory to carry subjective imaginations and blind beliefs and faiths. Un-controlled ill-flustered subjective imaginations and beliefs create illusions, hallucinations and delusions the result of which is diseases of mental retardation and derangement.
At no stretch of the track, the training program helps build intelligence. Intelligence is the ability of human brain to reach correct conclusions about what is true and real for resolving issues and problems being faced by individuals; it is the capability of the human mind to know generality and intricacies of situations to decide ‘course of action’.
Mid-Brain Activation Technique is certainly a mockery meant to cheat the public. Mid-brain has no role for development of intelligence and memory. Sensations, perceptions, conceptions leading to memory take place through excitation and inhibition of nerve cells in cerebral cortex located at the forefront of the brain. The so-called mid brain activation training is injurious to brain development of children and it may later lead to mental retardation and cerebral damages.
Black and White are well known, well identified colours, even though science does not recognize them as colours. Right from its origin, VIBGYOR had deep-rooted enmity towards WHITE and BLACK. Certainly that might be the reason why VIBGYOR denied membership to WHITE and BLACK in their group. But that did not matter the least for the duo. They founded permanent dwellings in Space, more specifically in Galaxies and also in human brain. Major part of the human brain is in the custody of WHITE codified as white-matter. The rest is occupied by black: Black created imaginary holes here and there inside white matter. It nicknamed the imaginary hole on the white-field as BLACK HOLES.
Scientists have confirmed that there are so many BLACK HOLES in Galaxies. These holes are totally different from the holes which are abundant on the surface of Earth. They are full of darkness and thereby black even during day time as they are during night as it ought to have to be. But the black holes in galaxies have inexplicably mysterious reactions as compared to the black holes on earth. Nothing, not even light can escape from black holes in galaxies. Whatever matter, including light rays, pass by or try to enter the black holes, they get sucked in, crushed and then get dissipated to nothingness.
Black Hole phenomena in the Space can reasonably be called as miracles because, till date, Scientists could not make even an inch of progress to find out anything about Black Holes except for their getting excited over the phenomena. They continue to be clueless as to how black holes are formed, what happens to matter including light which get sucked in when they happen to pass by, how they exist and how long they will continue to exist in Space. No answers to these questions. The phenomena of Black Holes remain as mysterious as ever. Despite decades of research, these monstrous cosmological phenomena remain shrouded in mystery. Let it be so, for now, till scientists find something crucial with tangible evidence about the basics of Black Holes.
Wait for a moment: Just ponder over the Black Hole phenomena in Space: As soon as one tries to ponder over the phenomenon, there comes in a serious thought about human brain. Just like in the case of the black holes in Galaxies which swallow everything but never allows anything to escape, there are large number of people among the denizens of human race who take in abundance of knowledge during their day to day engagements with people around, newspapers, magazines, books and periodicals as also what they hear from public platforms. Whether these persons are intellectuals or ordinary people, nothing comes out of their mouth from the knowledge-pool they stored in their mind, either in the form of words or by signs and symbols. They do not undertake lectures or do not address public meetings or elocution competitions. Neither are the knowledge and information used for self acclamation or for appreciation. They are the people whose brain and sensory centres can be taken as carriers of BLACK HOLES similar to those in Galaxies except for the fact that unlike the black holes in space, the black holes in human brain do not dissipate and destroy whatever knowledge and information they contain. Similarly, unlike the space-centric black holes, black holes in human brain are neither black in appearance nor are there any holes, presumptive or otherwise, in their sensory areas or the brain as a whole. The term ‘Black Hole’ in human brain created by researchers, is just a synonym to emphasize the nature of a set of people and personalities who keep mum despite their being the store-house of information, knowledge and intellectual ism.
Kudos to all the black hole-bears: But for them the human habitats on earth would have become soundly and nightmarish for the residents. They deserve all the appreciations for maintaining normalcy in ecological, social, cultural and political arenas for the Good of Nations.
‘Word’ is the path-maker for human to human Communication System. Word is deployed in the communication system either through speech or by writing down on material surfaces. These are well-known facts which need no specific mention. However, when it comes to spoken words, there comes something worth noticing: Spoken words entail sound and that makes the difference. Sound cannot be written down in normal, known platforms. Both word written and word sounded are symbols of signals.
Human Brain is capable of handling two Signal Systems through which ideas, information and knowledge are received and conveyed to self and to others respectively. The two signal systems are categorized as the First Signal System and the Second Signal System.
During the course of evolution, Homo sapiens developed an extremely important addition to its nervous activity. In animals reality of the surroundings is signalized by situations and the traces they leave behind in the cerebral hemispheres of brain which come directly to the nerve cells through visual, auditory, olfactory or other receptors. This process belongs to the category of First Signal System which humans too possess by way of impressions, sensations and notions in relation to the world around, – the world that represents both the natural and the social environs. As far as humans are concerned there is a well-laid path of communication system constructed by and through ‘word’ that is heard or ‘word’ that is seen in writing. That path of communication falls within the category of Second Signal System.
The Second Signal System is the special capability of human brain. The special capability of second signal system is of words written and or of words spoken. The knowledge the word conveys may be of impressions, sensations and notions in relation to the world around. Process of understanding the meaning and knowledge that the word conveys, either separately or jointly, depends upon the working condition of the sensory centres in the cerebral cortex of each individual human being: Idiots, imbeciles and morons may not understand the meaning and or knowledge that word represents or conveys. But an intelligent person whose sensory reactions to signals from the environs are sharp, might in all probability, understand the meaning and knowledge a word conveys with consistency as compared to morons, imbeciles and idiots.
Humans cherish their additional capability facilitated by Second Signal System of communication through spoken words or written words while they overtake animals, birds and every other lower specie to maim them and to succeed. Humans think, evaluate and invent through the magic wand of Second Signal System along with the support or help from First Signal System.
Word phobia also known as phobism, owes its origin to the Greek word ’Phobos’. From Phobos, there arose ‘phobia’ and ‘phobism’ in English linguafranca. Phobos in Greek means morbid fear which goes on haunting the subject repeatedly.
In the initial stages the word phobia or phobism was used in spoken and written language to mean a mental attitude of aversion or experience of morbid fear and the physical reaction connected with those feelings. But as time passed by, the scenario too got changes as is usual in all human perseverance: Today phobia carries on its head serious fearful thoughts and actions. It includes persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear connected with certain things or situations that compel a person to avoid the things or situations. And that disorder continues to persist even if proper awareness and reassurance that the things or situations are not dangerous is imparted.
In sum and substance, phobia is a combination of fear and dread in connection with certain things and matters which the phobic tries to avoid despite being lobbied that the things and matters concerned are harmless. In that backdrop phobia can be described as 1. An emotion containing persistent, abnormal, and irrational fear of a specific thing or situation that compels the inflicted person to avoid the thing or situation despite the awareness and reassurance to the effect that it is not dangerous; 2. The impairment of phobia is of serious nature, sometimes leading to very strong and severe repulsive dislikes and aversions.
Don’t take Phobia as a minor or temporary disorder: In fact it is a persisting mental aberration; it is difficult to bring the victim of which back to normalcy.
The disorder has been a serious subject for in-depth studies both by soul-searchers of psychology and by bio-neurological researchers of physiology. While the former remained in subjective conclusions about the onset and removal of the disorder without tangible results, the latter had made significant progress in diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. For diagnostic purposes, they classified phobias into two categories and thereby resolved major issues of the problem scientifically: Specific Phobias and Agora Phobias were/are the two categories which the researchers identified.
Specific Phobia relates to fear and aversion to particular objects or situations that induce acute anxiety and at times panic attacks. Such phobias fall under different types such as animal type, environmental type, situational type, injury type et al. The types are created on the basis of fear-objects and fear-situations that make the patients panic stricken. Agora Phobia is related to fear of leaving home, departing familiar and safer places and also while encountering thoughts of open spaces, social embarrassment, contamination, germs and so on. Such fears and aversions sparingly or otherwise follow obsessive-compulsive reactions as well.
The severity of phobia varies from individuals to individuals depending upon biological, genealogical and neurological factors. Mentally and physically strong built persons with the support of powerful conditioned reflexes developed during their childhood days where no blind beliefs and unwanted fear-situations were ever allowed can simply ignore objects of fear situations in their grown up years of existence. They are the individuals who can resist the pull of phobia and can feel comparatively milder fear and aversive reactions. On the other hand there are lot many people who suffer full-fledged panic attacks associated with disabling symptoms of phobia. Such persons feel totally powerless to override their panic reactions. The main reasons for such disablement are the environal influences they had undergone during their childhood mental development. Blind beliefs and obscurantistic persuasions exerted by parents, relatives, neighbours, religion, faith, social and cultural engagements, all of which jointly or isolatedly, in some way or the other, created fear and aversions in children during their upbringing days. As a result, the people who were born and brought up in the described tardy background become prey to different types of phobic reactions.
Psychologists have recently come out with a finding that women are more prone to fear than men. Their views are mischievous and untrue because of two scientifically proven facts. For one thing, there does not exist any difference between men and women in matters of brain-size and cell to cell communication faculty pertaining to intelligence and reasoning. Secondly, women are straighter forward in revealing what they are and what they know whereas men-folk tend to hide many truths relating to their personality which may force them not to reveal that they are prone to phobic reactions. Therefore, it is better to ignore the conclusion of the Psychologists on this score as the so-called soul-searchers are deeply into subjective pursuits rather than objective research with the support of empirical evidence.
Whatever be the pros and cons of phobias, in normal conditions, it is a protective reaction especially while viewing it in the context of evolution. Phobia plays a role of warning in advance to save the living organism, more importantly the humans, from harm or destruction from dangerous objects or situations. However, in abnormal conditions where phobia leads to panic attacks and serious repercussions, appropriate medico-clinical and psychiatric treatments should have to be sought for. Hypnotherapy is a suggested method of treatment for phobia. An appropriately trained hypnotist with adequate knowledge of neuroscience can help cure phobic maladies. Here, Pavlovian (Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov) theory of deconditioning is put into operation by the Hypnotist to restore normalcy.
Divine Miracles are part and parcel of every religion and its belief system: Every religious text contains stories of divine miracles. It is irrevocable, proven fact that the stories of Divine Miracles keep the religious followers firmly and unshakably attached to their faith and these stories help the faithful to offer timely prayers to their gods and deities. Above all, divine miracles are irreversible boost for the strength and might of every Religion. There is therefore no need for exhaustive research to find why divine miracles form integral part of every religion.
The most revered Divine Miracle of Christianity is appearance of “bleeding wounds of crucifixion” on the palms, chests and feet of notified Saints of extraordinary faith. These wounds are called stigmata: The number of stigmatics who had been anointed with sainthood in the whole history of Christianity, spanning over twenty centuries, is hardly around sixty. The bleeding wounds of stigmata are very rare occurrences and they are regarded as the greatest of all miracles in the history of Christian belief system.
The wounds on the body of the stigmatic are believed to represent the wounds sustained by Jesus Christ at the time of crucifixion. Christian literature has made very reverential references on divine men who had stigmata, the Holy Wounds of Crucifix on their palms and chests. The latest among the Holy Stigmatics were the French religious fanatic Louise Lateaue and Italian priest Padre Peo. While both are no more alive, Padre Peo was the twentieth century Stigmatic who left for heavenly abode on 17-9-1968.
Stigmata are spontaneous local bleeding ulcerations. They are symptoms appearing on certain persons who suffer from hysterical neurosis. In religious cults these local subcutaneous bruises develop on the body of persons of highly susceptible religious fervour during ecstatic states. The life story of Padre Peo will be of immense help to illustrate the sequences leading to the development of stigmata.
Padre Peo’s parents were highly religious. Their great ambition was to send young Padre to monastery and to equip him for priesthood. They planned everything conducive for the boy for a religious and priestly upbringing. He was not allowed to play with neighborhood boys. Prayer and study of religious texts were his only pastime. A grownup Padre was not different, he became a priest and he spent all his time in penance and prayer. He knelt before the crucifix and prayed for hours unending. He cut short his food and sleep. Christ and the great sacrifice were his only thought process. He spent long sixteen years in this way during the period, AD 1902 to 1918.
On one fine morning in early 1918, Padre Peo was in his prayer room: Tired and exhausted, suddenly his sleepy eyes twinkled as he could ultimately meet the fruition of his ambition, nay the ambition of a generation: Blood was dripping from the cross-like wounds developed on his palms. To add to his delight, he further observed ulcers on his feet and also on top of his chest. All this was unforgettable moments for him; it was the moment of the great miracle, the miracle that proclaimed Padre Peo as one of the most glorified Saints among the rank holders of stigmatics.
In the foregoing context, it becomes very much necessary to trace the scientific explanation for the appearance of bleeding wounds in the body of stigmatics. The ulcerous wounds of stigmata are not created by or through any external instruments like knife, stones, sticks or wood as we have seen in the case of Padre Peo?
In the summer of 1927, in the erstwhile Soviet Russia, famous scientists V Finne, M Chernorutsky and K Povarin conducted a very detailed study to trace the path of stigmata. The relevant portion of the research paper on the experiment is reproduced below:
“Subject M. 35 years old, easily suggestible, was put under deep state of suggested sleep (hypnosis): Once she was under Hypnosis, the scientists placed a copper coin on the inner side of her left forearm and gave strong suggestion that the object was a burning hot metal disc. Within a short while the subject sustained a heavy burn inside her forearm and she felt acute pain.
“The subject M was then woken up from Hypnosis and was kept under observation by the scientists: According to the records, 25 minutes after the aforesaid hypno-suggestion and after awakening from sleep, the subject’s skin at the point of the “burn” became reddish; after 55 minutes a swelling was observed; after 2½hours, a white spot appeared in the centre of the burnt spot. And after 3 ½ hours later, a blister was formed on the spot. “
Yes, under deep hypnosis any suggestion to the effect of “burning” makes a second degree burn on the body of the subject where the hypnotist or the operator-scientist wanted the burn to occur. This is the result of extraordinary reactions of the paradoxical phase of hypnosis.
When the devotee during rituals surrenders totally to the one and the only thought process of salvation, then he passes through extreme ecstatic states. In such ecstatic state the same phenomenon as observed in the development of second degree burn, can take place. It should however be clearly understood that appearance of stigmata hardly occurs during common prayers and rituals. It takes place in very, very rare cases of extreme religious practices arising out of acute, dedication which is nothing short of self-sacrifice.
During the long spells of prayful sessions, the dedicated believer becomes completely exhausted, the exhaustion being the consequence of excessive excitation of nerve cells due to strained body postures and concentration on certain specific thought process. The believer-subject thus enters into deep hypnotic phases. His delusional beliefs of “holy wounds” that has strong rooted images in his memory turn out to be powerful suggestions: He develops blisters and wounds in his palms and on his chest, just like the second degree burn that had developed in F Finne’s experiments. It is nothing other than hysterical neuroses.