All humans are not of the same calibre, emotionally, intellectually, creatively. Some can write poetry, novels and prose; some can make inventions and some can do hard labour. While on the other side, some live life simply to live life and many live life in dull-murk inertia.
Mental and physical activities of humans and other living organisms are produced by brain. The brain activities are executed by Excitation and Inhibition of the sensory centres in the central nervous system. Excitation and Inhibition are guided by reflexes. Reflexes are the established contact links of nerve to nerve communication. The nerve to nerve communication of reflexes is necessary for sensory experiences produced by stimuli emanating from various environs.
Environs go on changing constantly: Sometimes it is normal and at other times it fluctuates with higher and lower intensities. In order to keep balance with the fluctuating influence of the environs brain as a whole especially the nerve cells in the sensory areas of the cortex have to bear the burden of changes to keep equilibrium of its reactions. But the physical structure of every human being is not equally fit enough to keep the equilibrium. While a section of the people keep their behaviour balanced some others appear week, some provocative, some imaginative, some sleepish and dreamy. It all depends upon each individual’s neuro-physical structure alongside with congenital factors. As a result behaviour and temperaments of humans vary from person to person.
During the pre-scientific era of the yore, philosophers made umpteen attempts to classify the types of people on the basis of their temperament. They presumed that humans belong to many types depending upon their temperaments and behaviors. The Greek Physician-Philosopher Hippocrates, who belonged to the era four hundred years before Jesus Christ was born, was successful in identifying four basic types of humans depending upon their behaviour and temperaments. According to Hippocrates, these types are Choleric, Phlegmatic, Sanguine and Melancholic.
Choleric type of person is quick, active and practical. These persons are strong-willed, self-sufficient, and independent. They have vivid opinions and they make easy decisions for themselves and others.
Phlegmatic type is generally of well-balanced temperaments: They are calm, cool, slow and easy going. They do not get excited; they are happy and pleasant; they hardly interfere in the affairs of others. They are consistent; they are a combination of multitudes of abilities.
Sanguine is that type of person who is always warm, buoyant and lively. Sanguine is receptive; Sanguine recognizes the feelings of others; feelings rather than thoughts predominate the decision making of the Sanguine type.
Melancholy is considered as dark temperament: By nature Sanguine type of people are introverts. They live under the cloud of different moods; moods lead them to ecstasy.
Hippocrates’s argument for transformation of various types was based on a misconceived idea that different types of liquid surge in the body of people and the liquid turn them to different types of temperaments. The concept of body liquid theory was already discarded. The great Physiologist, Dr. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, closely examined the classification of human types to confirm whether there was neurological truth in the subjective theory propounded by Hippocrates. Pavlov’s investigations brought to light many hitherto hidden truths about human type.
Excitation and inhibition are the basic nerve processes of brain. Strength, mobility and balance of these basic nerve processes vary depending upon the nature of nerve cells. Pavlov proved that Choleric types of people are those whose nervous activity of excitation predominates inhibition. People with predominance of inhibition over excitation, are Phlegmatic. Sanguine are those with balanced excitation and inhibition. Melancholic are the type where both the nerve processes of excitation and inhibition are weak and feeble.
Pavlov’s investigations did not stop at identifying the nerve processes behind Types: He went ahead revealing peculiarities of various types and distinguished three Strong Types and one Weak Type of nervous system. He characterized them as (1) Strong type with predominance of excitation under the Choleric type, (2) Strong type with predominance of inhibition under Choleric type, (3) Strong type with balanced processes of excitation and inhibition under Phlegmatic type and (4) Weak type with weak processes of both excitation and inhibition under Sanguine type.
Ivan Pavlov investigated further to establish the link of Type with the first and the second signal systems of communication. [First Signal System is the means of communication through Signs and Symbols. Second Signal system is the means of communication through words]. Pavlov found that Artistic Type of people have predominance of First Signal System as compared to the Second Signal System. Intellectual Type is the one endowed with predominance of Second Signal System as means of communication compared to First Signal System. And there is an Intermediate Type with both First and Second signal systems balanced. People of artistic type perceive reality vividly, imaginatively.They feel confident in their surroundings. People of intellectual type are not inclined to ratiocination and doubt and they always turn indecisive in their day to day life.
Poetry, novels, short stories, philosophical doctrines are the creations of humans. Inventions for existence and inventions for destruction are the creations of humans. Society, social order, rules, regulations, customs, beliefs, dogmas, politics and governance are the creations of humans. Skill and ability of creations are bestowed on the humans according to their Type. Success or failure, whatever it be, all depends upon the Type. Type, yes type, that is what decides humans among humans.